Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Global Financial Crisis - Losing the War against Allah

In a very short period of time, the world trade markets and the “economic boom” took a toll for the worse and plummeted to its all-time low. Those who are unaware of the workings of Western Capitalistic Economy continue to turn a blind eye and regard this crisis as a mere short term recoverable mini recession. At the same time, those who have spent their lives in the field are much more critical. In fact, the Global Crisis is neither a trifling matter restricted to a number of days nor is it recoverable.

For a brief analysis of this crisis, it will suffice to merely highlight its origins. In crude words, this crisis is analogous to a terminally ill patient, that is beginning to show fatal symptoms. More than half a century ago in 1938, the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) was formed. This Association lent out loans for the clients looking for home financing. This was the initial infiltration of the reproductive virus, which would one day grow like cancer to bring about the major crisis causing a staggering 2000 point drop in the Market indexes.

The next step was to consolidate the first phase through the formation of The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Company (Freddie Mac) by Richard Nixon in 1970. Freddie Mac began offering a federal guarantee in lieu of the mortgages given by the local lenders. In order for the newly developing market of home mortgages to flourish Freddie Mac laid the foundation of extending financing to those less stable clients who were more likely to default, since the guarantee from the Freddie Mac would secure that risk.

In 1994 Bill Clinton ratified the “Racial Discrimination Treaty” which made low income individuals eligible for taking home loans. Similarly, it encouraged maximizing loans with these financing mortgages to its brink; thus giving a boom to the Home Building and Real Estate sectors, while outwardly providing an equitable housing for all classes.

Simultaneously, while these government interventions gave a boom to respected sectors, they also paved a smooth highway to saturation in the market as well. Once the market saturation was achieved by 2005, the home prices began to drop. Over the last couple of years, this saturation in the home building sector coupled with oscillating interest rates caused many of the clients, who had only received these loans on a Sub-Prime basis, to default on their payments. As the prices started to decline, investors panicked and started pulling their investments out of the market. In some incidents people pulled out as much as £1bn fearing that they will not get to see their savings again. The more money was withdrawn; the worse the market prospect became, motivating even more investors to pull out. Suddenly, we have a whole market being pulled into a whirlpool and taking all the other market sectors along with it.

The hardest blow in such time was to the investment-only banks. The Sub-prime market sells these loans to other banks throughout the globe. The plummeting of the Sub-Prime caused a major ripple on the other banks. The smaller banks became incapable of delivering funds to its investors, throwing them into an abyss of liquidation. In order to recover, these smaller banks looked for help from other banks trying to take loans. However in the midst of “evaporation” of liquidity, banks chose to refrain from inter-bank lending. This is referred to as the “credit-crunch” i.e. when the banks choose not to lend in between themselves to secure their own positions. This caused a recession for those smaller banks, causing some of them to either be nationalized or seek help from governments. At this point, governments decided to intervene once more and inject more money into the system to recover the markets and to assure the people of their savings.

These bail-out plans from the US and UK Governments have so far been unsuccessful in reviving this patient from the clutches and pangs of fatality. And how could they be successful when the gap which they themselves have created over the years between the actual credit and the monetary liquidity is so great that it cannot simply be covered. Moreover, Inflation has increased this gap multifold.

One thing which we understand from the above snippet into the history of the Financial Market is that while we tend to yearn for ownership of any commodity in the world, in the forms of housing, conveyance or earning from securities and futures, we tend to overlook the harms of our greed and the consequences thereof. The banks kept lending and lending in hope to grow the market clientele while reaping the interest of those loans. However, there was simply no cash to cover for those loans. On the other hand, the banks didn’t have cash to give off to the investors.

A closer look at this fiasco reveals that even this Sub-Prime Market is but one factor that has crippled the US economy. The primary and most damaging factor within these Financial Products in particular and the economy as a whole, is the “Riba-virus” (interest) which floats through the bloodstream of the entire system forming the basis for the whole economy. The mortgages which became a plague for the economy are fueled by this Riba. All the misfortune of our economy is borne from this one factor. The core concept of making money from nothing by merely lending credits which are not yet in the system makes the whole Economy hollow from inside, and when the need is most, there is not enough money to cover these gaps. This is the destructive face of Riba. We ought to have realized this ages ago since Allah Ta’ala instituted prohibition of this Riba to rid us from the harms of it. Allah Ta’ala says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ الرِّبَا أَضْعَافًا مُّضَاعَفَةً وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O ye who believe! Devour not usury, doubling and quadrupling (the sum lent). 
Observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful. (Qur’an 3:130)

In reaction to the prohibition, people sought to defend their stance by claiming that Riba is nothing but a form of trade, just as Western Capitalism believes. There is hardly any sector that does not deal in interest-based products. Capitalism has even made the learned ones believe that such trade in securities and interest markets is nothing but a means of earning and living. Whereas, Allah Ta’ala declared for us,

الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لاَ يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

Those who swallow usury cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch.That is because they say: Trade is just like usury; whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbiddeth usury… (Qur’an 2:275)

Similar severe admonition of Riba is reported from Prophet of Allah salallahu alayhi wasallam.

وعن عبد الله يعني ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال الربا ثلاث وسبعون بابا أيسرها مثل أن ينكح الرجل أمه 
رواه الحاكم وقال صحيح على شرط البخاري ومسلم ورواه البيهقي من طريق الحاكم ثم قال هذا إسناد صحيح والمتن
On the authority of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood radiyallahu anhu it is reported that the Rasulullah salallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Usury has seventy three categories. The least category of them is like a man marrying his mother.” (Al-Hakim, Bayhaqi)

Imagine the disgust our beloved Rasulullah salallahu alayhi wasallam had for Riba. Similarly more severe words have been used while admonishing this evil.

وعن جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنهما قال لعن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم آكل الربا ومؤكله وكاتبه وشاهديه وقال هم سواء (رواه مسلم وغيره)

On the authority of Jabir bin Abdillah radiyallahu anhuma it is reported that he said: “The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallm cursed the devourer of usury, its giver, its scribe and one who (stands) witness to it”. And he said “they are all same”.(Sahih Muslim)

We do not need more examples to be manifested from side of Allah before we realize that it is only in the obedience of Allah and injunctions of Islam, that we shall enjoy the bliss of a stable and equitable Economy. In defying this commandment of Allah we take up arms to challenge Him. In fact, one who engages in this vile evil has been sought by Allah Himself as an opponent in a War with Him. Allah says,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَذَرُواْ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَo 
فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ فَأْذَنُواْ بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لاَ تَظْلِمُونَ وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ
O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers. And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principle (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged.(Qur’an 2:278-9)

We must shed this element of “interest” from all facets of our life and look towards Islamic Principles to combat the current Global Crisis and dawn into an era of a morally sound Economy.

Abuhajira bin Abdul Hamid
4th Year Student at Madrassah In’aamiyyah

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Camperdown

Saturday, August 23, 2008

Buying and Selling Gold


Someone asked me this question. This person has a few thousand dollars and he wants to make this money multiply in a halal manner. Recently, he heard that the price of gold is going to go up many folds so he wants to know if he could purchase gold with the savings he has right now so that he could sell the gold bars when the price goes up. I found it very hard to answer this question because I dont know whether this is halal.
So, maulana saab is this halal?


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh The transaction will be permissible as you have stated in your query that the brother will purchase the gold in cash with his savings. As for the issue of selling the gold, it will only be permissible after the buyer first takes physical possession of the gold.
مصنف عبد الرزاق - (ج 8 / ص 90)14440 - أخبرنا عبد الرزاق قال أخبرنا الأسلمي قال حدثنا عبد الله بن دينار عن بن عمر قال نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عن بيع الكالىء وهو بيع الدين بالدين وعن بيع المجر وهو بيع ما في البطون الإبل وعن الشغار
البحر الرائق - (ج 6 / ص 211)وقيد بالذهب والفضة لأنه لو باع فضة بفلوس أو ذهب بفلوس فإنه يشترط قبض أحد البدلين قبل الافتراق لا قبضهما كذا في الذخيرة

And Allah knows best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

خيار الرؤية


A person is selling a piece of land. He takes a potential buyer to see the land. However, due to there not being any proper roads to access the land, they are unable to reach the actual plot. However, he roughly points out to the buyer the location of the land. The buyer says he has taken it and even receives the title deeds and makes half the payment. Thereafter, when the buyer actually goes to physically see the piece of land, it turns out that it is in a completely different area from the area which he was initially made to believe. He goes back to the seller and asks for his money which he had paid and says he does not want the land because it is in an area which he was not aware of. Is it permissible for the buyer to rescind his decision to buy the piece of land without the consent of the seller?


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh If a person had purchased a piece of land and was shown roughly the plot from a distance, then he will have the option of returning it upon seeing the actual plot. The option of returning the purchased item after seeing (خيار الرؤية) will not be lost by the transfer of title. If the purchaser does not accept the deal after seeing the plot, then Islamically the seller will have to return his money and deal will be nullified. The seller’s consent to nullify the deal is not a requisite.
( قوله : وكفى رؤية ما يؤذن بالمقصود ) لأن رؤية جميع المبيع غير مشروط لتعذره فيكتفى برؤية ما يدل على العلم بالمقصود هداية والمراد أن رؤية ذلك قبل الشراء كافية في سقوط خياره بعده لأنه قد اشترى ما رأى فلا خيار له ، وليس المراد أنه لو اشترى قبل الرؤية ثم رأى ذلك يسقط خياره كما توهمه بعض الطلبة فاستشكله بأن خيار الرؤية غير مؤقت وأنه إذا رآه بعد الشراء لا يسقط إلا بقول أو فعل يدل على الرضا فكيف يسقط بمجرد رؤية ما يؤذن بالمقصود أفاده في النهر ، ويشير إليه الشارح ولا شك أنه توهم ساقط وإلا لزم أن لا يثبت خيار الرؤية بعد الشراء إلا قبل الرؤية بعده ولا قائل به مع أن الرؤية بعد الشراء شرط ثبوت الخيار على ما مر – رد المحتار (4/73) مكتبة رشيدية
And Allah knows best
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa, Madrassah Inaamiyah

Using Water heated by Sun

I would like to know whether it is permissible to use solar power as a source of heating water and generating electricity in out homes, in light of the environmental issues surrounding the increase in power demand around the world and the implications this has on global warming. I am a scientist and a keen environmentalist, and therefore understand the harms that increase power demand will have the planet. I was told that water heated from the sun is not permissible.Harvesting solar energy has the potential of providing electricity for our homes without the burning of coal and release of toxic fumes and unneccessary carbon deposition into the atmosphere.


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh It is permissible to use solar power as a source of heating water and generating electricity.

The books of Fiqh do mention that it is makrooh (tanzihi) to use water that is heated by the sun if:
1. It is in a hot country
2. Its on a hot day
3. In a utensil other than gold and silver
4. The water is used while heating This is due to medical reasons that it leads to leprosy. If these conditions are is not found, it will not be makrooh.
Ahsan al-Fatawa (2/43)
H.M. SaeedRad al-Muhtar (1:180) H.M. Saeed
(قوله : وكراهته إلخ ) أقول : المصرح به في شرحي ابن حجر والرملي على المنهاج أنها شرعية تنزيهية لا طبية ، ثم قال ابن حجر : واستعماله يخشى منه البرص كما صح عن عمر رضي الله عنه واعتمده بعض محققي الأطباء لقبض زهومته على مسام البدن فتحبس الدم ، وذكر شروط كراهته عندهم ، وهي أن يكون بقطر حار وقت الحر في إناء منطبع غير نقد ، وأن يستعمل وهو حار . أقول : وقدمنا في مندوبات الوضوء عن الإمداد أن منها أن لا يكون بماء مشمس ، وبه صرح في الحلية مستدلا بما صح عن عمر من النهي عنه ؛ ولذا صرح في الفتح بكراهته ، ومثله في البحر وقال في معراج الدراية وفي القنية : وتكره الطهارة بالمشمس ، { لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعائشة رضي الله عنها حين سخنت الماء بالشمس لا تفعلي يا حميراء ، فإنه يورث البرص } " وعن عمر مثله . وفي رواية لا يكره ، وبه قال أحمد ومالك . والشافعي : يكره إن قصد تشميسه . وفي الغاية : وكره بالمشمس في قطر حار في أوان منطبعة ، واعتبار القصد ضعيف ، وعدمه غير مؤثر ا هـ ما في المعراج ، فقد علمت أن المتعمد الكراهة عندنا لصحة الأثر وأن عدمها رواية . والظاهر أنها تنزيهية عندنا
أيضا ، بدليل عده في المندوبات ، فلا فرق

And Allah Knows Best
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri
Student Darul Iftaa,
Madrassah Inaamiyyah


In referrence to your Fatwa 15777 i am confused. Are you saying that solar power is permissible only in the conditions stated or are your saying that it is not permissible in those conditions. Condition 1 states if it is in a Hot country, please explain what this means. Hot to whoCondition 2 Again hot to who?


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh It is makrooh tanzeehi to use water for wudhu or ghusl if ALL of the conditions are found. If one of the conditions is not found, then it will not be makrooh tanzeehi.As mentioned before, this is due to medical reasons. Therefore, in classifying a country as hot or a day as hot the view of the professionals in that field will be taken into consideration, as they would know best when water heated directly by the sun becomes harmful.Again, this karahah (disliking) is when the water is put directly in the sun and heated. Solar-powered water heaters in today’s time are not operated in this manner, therefore it will not be makrooh.We request if you can please provide us with scientific research on this matter as requested in the previous reply.And

Allah knows best
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Covering head - Topi/Kuffiah - A Sunnah

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
The covering of the head is a Sunnah which should be practiced both while in prayers and out of prayers. It is stated in Fatawa Al Hindiyyah
الفتاوى الهندية - (ج 5 / ص 330)
وقد صح أنه صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كان يلبسها كذا في الوجيز للكردري
((It is authentically proven that Nabi صلي الله عليه و سلم used to adorn the topi, as mentioned in ‘Al Wajeez of Al Kardary))
Likewise, it is mentioned in Khulasah al fatawa
وقد صح أنه كان لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قلانس يلبسها
((It is authentically proven that Nabi صلي الله عليه و سلم had many topis (hats, caps) which he used to wear.)) (Khulasah al fatawa 4/369, Rasheediyyah)
Allamah Ibn Jawzi (R.A) has also classified the topi as Sunnah. (The crown of a believer (27) with reference to the Sharh of Allamah Munawi on Shamaail 1/203) In fact, Allamah Ibn al Arabi mentions that the topi is from the dress of all the Ambiya and pious. He also emphatically mentioned that it is a Sunnah.
الفجر الساطع على الصحيح الجامع - (ج 8 / ص 103)
وقال ابن العربي : (القلنسوة من لباس الأنبياء والصالحين، تصون الرأس وتمكن العمامة، وهي من السنة، وحكمها أن تكون لاطية لا مقبية، إلا أن يفتقر الرجل إلى أن يحفظ رأسه عما يخرج منه عن الأبخرة، فيقبيها أو يثقب فيها)
Similarly, Allamah Al Qastallani (R.A) mentioned that Nabi صلي الله عليه و سلم used to wear a topi which used to be attached to his head. This used to be under his turban. (Al Mawahib al laduniyyah al matboo bi sharh Az Zarqani alayhi 269/6)
Hereunder we have reproduced a few Ahadith which should serve to prove the statements of the illustrious Scholars which we have quoted above
قال أبو داود سننه - (ج 4 / ص 95)
4080 - حدثنا قتيبة بن سعيد الثقفى حدثنا محمد بن ربيعة حدثنا أبو الحسن العسقلانى عن أبى جعفر بن محمد بن على بن ركانة عن أبيه أن ركانة صارع النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فصرعه النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال ركانة وسمعت النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يقول « فرق ما بيننا وبين المشركين العمائم على القلانس ».(رواه ابو داود، و الحاكم في « المستدرك (3 / 511). و ان كنت تريد البحث في السند فانظر لزاما « بذل المجهود »(6 / 401) و « تحفة الأشراف » (3 / 174)

((The difference between us and the polytheists is that we wear the turban on the topi))(Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi and Al Hakim)

قال البيهقي في شعب الإيمان - (ج 5 / ص 175)
6259 - أخبرنا علي بن أحمد بن عبدان أنا أحمد بن عبيد ثنا سعيد بن عثمان الأهواوزي ثنا يزيد بن الحرش ثنا عبد الله بن خراش عن العوام بن حوشب عن إبراهيم التيمي عن ابن عمر : « أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يلبس قلنسوة بيضاء » (أخرجه البيهقي و قال تفرد به ابن خراش هذا وهو ضعيف و رواه الطبراني في الكبير و قال الهيثمي في مجمع الزوائد - (ج 5 / ص 211) رواه الطبراني وفيه عبد الله بن خراش وثقه ابن حبان وقال : ربما أخطأ وضعفه جمهور الأئمة وبقية رجاله ثقات و قال المباركفوري في تحفة الأحوذي - (ج 5 / ص 393) قال العزيزي إسناده حسن)

((Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that Rasullullah صلي الله عليه و سلم used to wear a white topi.)) (Narrated by Imam Bayhaqi and Tabrani)

وقال أبو يعلى الموصلي:
حدثنا سريج بن يونس أبو الحارث ، حدثنا هشيم ، عن عبد الحميد بن جعفر ، عن أبيه ، قال : قال خالد بن الوليد : «اعتمرنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في عمرة اعتمرها فحلق شعره ، فاستبق الناس إلى شعره ، فاستبقت إلى الناصية ، فأخذتها ، فأخذت قلنسوة ، فجعلتها في مقدم القلنسوة ، فما وجهتها في وجه إلا فتح لي. » (قال البوصيري في إتحاف الخيرة المهرة - (ج 7 / ص 88) رواه أبو يعلى بسند صحيح. و أخرجه الطبراني في المعجم الكبير - (ج 4 / ص 104) قال الهيثمي في مجمع الزوائد - (ج 9 / ص 582) رواه الطبراني وأبو يعلى بنحوه ورجالهما رجال الصحيح وجعفر سمع من جماعة من الصحابة فلا أدري سمع من خالد أم ل
((Khalid bin Walid (May Allah be pleased with him) mentioned, ‘We performed Umrah with the Messenger of Allah صلي الله عليه و سلم at the time when he performed Umrah. The Messenger of Allah صلي الله عليه و سلم shaved his head and people hastened to collect his hear. I raced to his forelock and collected (the hair). I also took his topi. I placed the hair of the forelock in the starting portion of the topi. I never faced it in any direction except that I conquered that land. )) (Narrated by Abu Ya’la Al Musily and At Tabrani)
سنن الترمذي - (ج 4 / ص 177)
1644 - حدثنا قتيبة حدثنا ابن لهيعة عن عطاء بن دينار عن ابي يزيد الخولاني أنه سمع فضالة بن عبيد يقول : سمعت عمر بن الخطاب يقول سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول الشهداء أربعة رجل مؤمن جيد الإيمان لقي العدو فصدق الله حتى قتل فذلك الذي يرفع الناس إليه أعينهم يوم القيامة هكذا ورفع رأسه حتى وقعت قلنسوته قال فما أدري أقلنسوة عمر أراد أم قلنسوة النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ؟ قال ورجل مؤمن جيد الإيمان لقي العدو فكأنما ضرب جلده بشوط طلح من الجبن أتاه سهم غرب فتقله فهو في الدرجة الثانية ورجل مؤمن خلط عملا صالحا وآخر سيئا لقي العدو فصدق الله حتى قتل فذلك في الدرجة الثالثة ورجل مؤمن أسرف على نفسه لقي العدو فصدق الله حتى قتل فذلك في الدرجة الرابعة
قال ابو عيسى هذا حديث حسن غريب لا نعرفه إلا من حديث عطاء بن دينار قال سمعت محمدا يقول قد روى سعيد بن ابي أيوب هذا الحديث عن عطاء بن دينار وقال عن اشياخ من خولان ولم يذكر فيه عن أبي يزيد وقال عطاء بن دينار ليس به بأس قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن غريب قلت و أخرجه ايضا الطيالسي في مسنده - (ج 1 / ص 10) من طريق عبد الله بن المبارك عن عبد الله بن عقبة الحضرمي عن عطاء بن دينار و كذا أخرحه البيهقي في شعب الإيمان (ج 4 / ص 29) بهذا الطريق

In the above hadith, the narrator mentions that while demonstrating how people will raise their heads for a martyr on the day of judgement, either the topi of Nabi صلي الله عليه و سلم or the topi of Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) fell off.
There are also numerous authentic narrations which show that various Sahabah used to wear a topi. Hereunder, we will cite a few…
قال الدار قطني
55 - حدثني الحسين بن إسماعيل حدثني سعيد بن يحيى الأموي حدثني أبي نا يحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري عن نافع عن بن عمر : أنه كان إذا مسح رأسه رفع القلنسوة ومسح مقدم رأسه(أخرجه الدارقطني في سننه (ج 1 / ص 107) والبيهقي في السنن الكبرى(ج 1 / ص 61)
((Nafi (May Allah have mercy on him) narrates that when Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) used to wipe his head, he used to raise his topi and wiped the front portion of his head.))(Ad Dar al Qutni and Bayhaqi)
قال الحاكم في المستدرك
5450 - حدثنا علي بن حمشاد العدل ثنا محمد بن بشر ثنا مطر ثنا أبو إبراهيم الترجماني قال : رأيت شيخا بدمشق يقال له أبو إسحاق الأجرب مولى لبني هبار القرشي قال رأيت أبا الدرداء عويمر بن قيس بن خناسة صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أشهل أقنى يخضب بالصفرة و رأيت عليه قلنسوة مضربة صغيرة و رأيت عليه عمامة قد ألقاها على كتفيه
قال العباس : فسمعت رجلا كان معي يقال له مذ كم رأيته ؟ قال : رأيته منذ أكثر من مائة سنة قال و كان عليه جوربان و نعلان قال و كان أتى على أبي إسحاق نحو من عشرين و مائة سنة (المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم مع تعليقات الذهبي في التلخيص - (ج 3 / ص 381)
Abu Ishaq Al Ajrab says, ((I saw Abu Darda (May Allah be pleased with him)….and I saw he was wearing a double layered topi....))(Mustadrak Hakim(
25356- حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد ، عن ابن أبي عروبة ، عن أشعث ، عن أبيه ؛ أن أبا موسى خرج من الخلاء ، وعليه قلنسوة ، فمسح عليها. (مصنف ابن أبي شيبة - (ج 8 / ص 213)
((Ashath narrates from his father that Abu Musa (Ashari) emerged from the toilet and he had a topi upon which he wiped.)) (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 8/213)
All the above narrations show that the topi is Sunnah out of Salah. It is obvious that if Nabi صلي الله عليه و سلم and Sahabah wore topis out of Salah then most definitely they must have worn it in Salah. Nevertheless, the following are a few specific proofs which shows that wearing a topi in Salah is also Sunnah.
It is stated in Saheeh al Bukhari that Hasan Basri (May Allah be pleased with him) has said,
وقال الحسن كان القوم يسجدون على العمامة والقلنسوة (صحيح البخاري - (ج 1 / ص 150) و قال أستاذنا الشيخ حسين ((و جزم به-أي البخاري-و معلوم أن تعليقات البخاري مقبول اذا جزم به و أما قول الحافظ وصله ابن أبي شيبة فليس في المطبوع ذكر القلنسوة و لا عند عبد الرزاق و لا البيهقي والله أعلم)
“The (Sahabah) used to prostrate on their turbans and topis.”
Ibrahim An Nakhai (May Allah be pleased with him) mentions that it was the practice of the Sahabah to perform Salah with Burnus. (i.e. covering their heads with hoods)(The crown of a believer, 88 with reference to Mussannaf Abdur Razzaq.)
It is also good to note that numerous Scholars hold the view that it is makrooh for a person to read Salah with his head uncovered.
الفتاوى الهندية - (ج 1 / ص 106)
وتكره الصلاة حاسرا رأسه
The above mentioned Ahadith should be sufficient to prove that the topi is Sunnah in Salah and out of Salah. Nevertheless, if you desire more proofs, we suggest you refer to the booklet ‘The crown of a believer’. This is a treatise which has been researched and compiled Mufti Husain Kadodia Saheb. The book is available online.
And Allah knows best
Ml. Ismail Moosa,
Student Darul Iftaa, Madrassah Inaamiyyah

Friday, June 13, 2008

Blood spot in Egg

It is said that if an egg has a blood mark you can't eat it because there was a chance of life in that!! What i want to know that would it be possible to eat it if the blood spot was removed somehow? Is it related to ANY blood mark or only those which look really red and fresh.

If blood becomes apparent inside an egg, the spots of blood will be impure and unlawful to consume. If the spots of blood are removed without it contaminating the other parts of the egg, then the egg will no longer remain impure and will be lawful to consume. The removal of blood is related to all types of blood marks and not only those that seem fresh.

بيضة مذرت ، فهى نجسة ، لأنها تتحول دما بخلاف اللبن ، لأنه يتغير بالفساد طعمه ، وبتغير الطعم لا يتنجس ، كذا فى ((القنية)) عن (خو) أي الخمير الوبري رحمه الله . – فتاوى اللكنوى ص 115 دار ابن حزم

في «القدوري»: إذا ماتت فأرة في مائع كالسمن ونحوه، فإن كان ذائبا تنجس وجاز الانتفاع به في غير الأبدان وجاز بيعه، على البائع أن يبين ذلك للمشتري. وإن كان جامدا تلقى ويقور ما حولها ويلقى وينتفع بالباقي أكلا وغير ذلك، والأصل فيه ما روي أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سئل عن سمن وقعت فيه فأرة وماتت قال: «إن كان جامدا فألقوها وما حولها وكلوا الباقي وإن كان ذائبا فانتفعوا به ولا تأكلوه»؛ ولأن في الجامد النجاسة جاورت موضعا واحدا، فإذا قور ذلك فالباقي طاهر، وفي الذائب النجاسة جاورت الكل فصار الكل نجسا. وحد الجمود والذوبان: أنه إذا كان بحال لو قور ذلك الموضع لا يستوي من ساعته فهو جامد، وإن كان يستوي من ساعته فهو ذائب – المحيط البرهاني ( ج1 ص123) دار إحياء التراث العربي

Allah knows best,

Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Time for Salaat Isha in high latitudes

I need to clarify something about Isha prayer in UK. These days, or generally in summers, Maghrib prayer time goes as late as 2145 at night which means that Isha will be quite late. I have heard that you can offer Isha after 1 and half hour after Maghrib time. However, untill the sky blacks out, you can't offer Isha.Some mosques say time for Salah is 11 whereas others say its 12 midnight. My question is that here in UK it doesn't go absolutely dark in summers; so what would be the best time for Isha? Is it absolute dark or 1 and half hour thing I mentioned is correct, because waiting for sky to go absolutely dark/black and then getting up for fajr makes it really difficult to go to work!!

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
The time if ‘Isha commences upon the disappearance of the whiteness of the sky (Al-Shafq al-Abyad) according to Imam Abu Hanifa (ra) and upon the disappearance of the redness of the sky (Al-Shafq al-Ahmar) according to Imam Abu Yusuf (ra) and Imam Muhammad (ra).

In high latitude countries, the whiteness in the sky remains in the sky during the summer days and at times the redness also does not disappear. According to some Jurists, the ‘Isha prayer is not obligatory since the time of ‘Isha never sets in. However other ‘Ulama have stated that salat will still be obligatory and this is a more precautionary view.

If it is a locality where the redness disappears but the whiteness remains, then the ‘Isha time will commence upon the redness disappearing. This is the view of Imam Abu Yusuf (ra) and Imam Muhammad (ra) and is a valid, accepted view within the madhhab.

If it is a locality where the redness in the sky also does not disappear or the sun never sets below the horizon, then Jurists have given different options to what should be done for the daily salats.

· The timings of salat should be calculated based upon that day of the year which has a normal, balanced timing.
· The timings salat should be calculated based upon the last day in which there was a normal night, i.e. the redness and the whiteness disappeared.
· The timings for the salat should be calculated based upon the nearest locality that has a normal day and night.

One should adopt an option in which the remainder of the locality is practicing upon so the community can perform the salats with congregation. If one is uncertain about which method of calculation is right for him, then he should consult the local scholars and practice upon their advice.

It would not be correct to stipulate a general time such as 1 ½ hours after Maghrib for the time of ‘Isha. The timing of salat is not calculated by fixed times but it depends on the movement of the sun. We understand that it is difficult to practice upon the stipulated time of salat, especially when the days are long and Fajr is very early. If one is in extreme difficulty, then he may perform the ‘Isha salat right before the Fajr time is about to commence and then perform Fajr salat thereafter. (This is known as Jama’ Suwari)
Rad al-Muhtar (1/362) H.M. Saeed
Ahsan al-Fatawa (2/113) H.M. Saeed

فى در المختار: ( وفاقد وقتهما ) كبلغار ، فإن فيها يطلع الفجر قبل غروب الشفق في أربعينية الشتاء ( مكلف بهما فيقدر لهما ) ولا ينوي القضاء لفقد وقت الأداء به أفتى البرهان الكبير واختاره الكمال ، وتبعه ابن الشحنة في ألغازه فصححه ، فزعم المصنف أنه المذهب ( وقيل لا ) يكلف بهما لعدم سببهما ، وبه جزم في الكنز والدرر والملتقى وبه أفتى البقالي ، ووافقه الحلواني والمرغيناني ورجحه الشرنبلالي والحلبي ، وأوسعا المقال ومنعا ما ذكره الكمال قلت : ولا يساعده حديث الدجال ؛ لأنه وإن وجب أكثر من ثلثمائة ظهر مثلا قبل الزوال ليس كمسألتنا ؛ لأن المفقود فيه العلامة لا الزمان ، وأما فيها فقد فقد الأمران .فى رد المحتار: بقي الكلام في معنى التقدير ، والذي يظهر من عبارة الفيض أن المراد أنه يجب قضاء العشاء ، بأن يقدر أن الوقت أعني سبب الوجوب قد وجد كما يقدر وجوده في أيام الدجال على ما يأتي ؛ لأنه لا يجب بدون السبب ، فيكون قوله ويقدر الوقت جوابا عن قوله في الأول لعدم السبب . وحاصله أنا لا نسلم لزوم وجود السبب حقيقة بل يكفي تقديره كما في أيام الدجال . ويحتمل أن المراد بالتقدير المذكور هو ما قاله الشافعية من أنه يكون وقت العشاء في حقهم بقدر ما يغيب فيه الشفق في أقرب البلاد إليهم ، والمعنى الأول أظهر ،...والأحسن في الجواب عن المحقق الكمال ابن الهمام أنه لم يذكر حديث الدجال ليقيس عليه مسألتنا أو يلحقها به دلالة ، وإنما ذكره دليلا على افتراض الصلوات الخمس وإن لم يوجد السبب افتراضا عاما ؛ لأن قوله وما روي معطوف على قوله ما تواطأت عليه أخبار الإسراء ، وما أورده عليه من عدم الافتراض على الحائض والكافر يجاب عنه بما قاله المحشي من ورود النص بإخراجهما من العموم . هذا وقد أقر ما ذكره المحقق تلميذاه العلامتان المحققان ابن أمير حاج والشيخ قاسم . والحاصل أنهما قولان مصححان ، ويتأيد القول بالوجوب بأنه قال به إمام مجتهد وهو الإمام الشافعي كما نقله في الحلية عن المتولي عنه . ( قوله : ولا يساعده ) الضمير راجع إلى ما ذكره الكمال ح . ( قوله : حديث الدجال ) هو ما قدمناه في كلام الكمال . قال الإسنوي : فيستثنى هذا اليوم مما ذكر في المواقيت ، ويقاس اليومان التاليان له . قال الرملي في شرح المنهاج : ويجري ذلك فيما لو مكثت الشمس عند قوم مدة . ا هـ . ح . قال في إمداد الفتاح قلت : وكذلك يقدر لجميع الآجال كالصوم والزكاة والحج والعدة وآجال البيع والسلم والإجارة ، وينظر ابتداء اليوم فيقدر كل فصل من الفصول الأربعة بحسب ما يكون كل يوم من الزيادة والنقص كذا في كتب الأئمة الشافعية ، ونحن نقول بمثله إذ أصل التقدير مقول به إجماعا في الصلوات ا هـ
Allah knows best,

Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Burrying of Placenta after birth

I am due to have my baby by ceaserean section on the 4th July, due to major complications in my last pregnancy. The after birth/placenta last time had to be examined for infection so unfortunately I was unable to request it from the hospital.

In the U.K as the placenta legally belongs to the mother no hospital can refuse to give it. My concern is the placenta has to be buried however, no memeber of my family has a garden where it can be buried. My son has been buried in the local cemetry but according to regulations the placenta has to be buried at least 1metre underground to prevent rodents from digging it up. So, his plot cannot be used.

If, i didnt request the afterbirth from the hospital as per procedure it would be incinerated, would I be sinful for allowing this to be done?

I would appreciate if you would take the time to answer my question according to the Hanafi madhaab.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Allah Ta'ala says in the Holy Quran:

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آَدَم................وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا
"And we bestowed dignity on the children of Adam……….and provided them with a variety of good things and made them much superior to many of those whom We have created" (17:70)

Allah Ta'ala has bestowed honor on the human beings over other creation. Therefore, the human body and its parts must be respected properly and not tampered with. Just as a dead body must be buried according to Shari'ah, any separated limb or organ from ones body must be buried as well. Cremation of a dead body or incineration of a separated limb or organ is prohibited, as burning is a sign of dishonor and disrespect.

The habitual practice of the Sahaba (RadiyAllahu Anhum) was to bury even their clipped hair and nails. Evidence of this act is found in a couple of Hadith:

حدثنا علان بن عبد الصمد الطيالسي ماغمة قال ثنا محمد بن الحسن الأسدي ثنا أبي ثنا قيس عن عبد الجبار بن وائل عن أبيه : أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يأمر بدفن الشعر و الأظفار
"Waail ibn Hajar (RadiyAllahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) ordered hair and nails to be buried." (Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer)

عن ابن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ادفنوا الاظفار والشعر والدم
"Ibn Umar (RadiyAllahu Anhu) says that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Bury nails, hair, and blood." (Sunan al-Kuba Al-Bayhaqee)

Therefore, if there is a recommendation for nails, hair, and blood to be buried, then one must surely endeavor in all efforts to bury separated organs, such as the placenta. This will preserve the honor and dignity of the human body. If no members of your family have any land or garden where the placenta can be buried, perhaps you can kindly ask family friends or any other Muslims in the community. You may even consult a local scholar to see if he knows of any land where it is possible for it to be buried.

May Allah make your pregnancy easy and keep you and the child healthy. Ameen.

فإذا قلم أطفاره أو جز شعره ينبغي أن يدفن ذلك الظفر والشعر المجزوز فإن رمى به فلا بأس وإن ألقاه في الكنيف أو في المغتسل يكره ذلك لأن ذلك يورث داء كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان .
يدفن أربعة الظفر والشعر وخرقة الحيض والدم كذا في الفتاوى العتابية .
(Fatawa al-Hindiyya, Vol. 5, P. 438, Darul Kutub Ilmiyya)

أن السن من الآدمي جزء منه فإذا انفصل استحق الدفن
(Badaai' al-Sanaai', Vol. 4, P. 316, Darul Kitab Deoband)

And Allah knows best

Ml. Asif Umar,

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Passing infront of the one who is praying

If I'm sitting down or standing somewhere and a person starts salaah directly behind me, can i get up and move away? Or is it considered walking in front of a praying person?

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Passing in front of a person in salah is indeed a very grave sin. Nabi صلى الله عليه و سلم is reported to have mentioned:

عن بسر بن سعيد : أن زيد بن خالد أرسله إلى أبي جهيم يسأله ماذا سمع من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في المار بين يدي المصلي ؟ فقال أبو جهيم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ( لو يعلم المار بين يدي المصلي ماذا عليه لكان أن يقف أربعين خيرا له من أن يمر بين يديه ) . قال أبو النضر لا أدري أقال أربعين يوما أو شهرا أو سنة متفق عليه

“Had the one passing in front a person performing salah knew the sin in doing so it would it be better for him to wait for forty rather than passing in front of the musalli. The narrator of this narration says I do not recall did he say forty days, months or years. Agreed upon.

If one is sitting in front of one praying salah then, standing up and leaving will not be considered as passing in front of a musalli if standing up and going away will not distract the musalli. Passing in front of a musalli refers to one who crosses in front of him for example from the right to the left.

فتح الباري - ابن حجر - (ج 1 / ص 464) احياء التراث العربي
ثانيها ظاهر الحديث أن الوعيد المذكور يختص بمن مر لا بمن وقف عامدا مثلا بين يدي المصلي أو قعد أو رقد لكن إن كانت العلة فيه التشويش على المصلي فهو في معنى المار

And Allah knows best
Ml. Ishaq E. Moosa,
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Friday, May 09, 2008

Permissibility for a woman to take husband's surname

Question :
There are some people who say that it is not permissible to take the surname of the husband after marriage. These are backed with various hadeeth eg "Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allaah…" [al-Ahzaab 33:5].

As it is in this world, so it will also be in the Hereafter, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

"On the Day of Resurrection, each betrayer will have a banner raised beside him, and it will be said, this is the betrayer of So and so the son of So and so." (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5709, and Muslim, 3265).
Mufti sahib, after showing the fatwas on Ask Imam, it is not sufficient an answer for them because there is no back up from Qur'an and Hadeeth. Do you have anything that we can show them? I am not writing this in case of argument, but that this is what I believe and I wish to allow others to see this Islam as well.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

It is permissible for a woman to change her surname to her husband's surname. The verse of the Qur’an as well as the hadith provided to prove "impermissibility" are incorrectly understood.

It was a practice of the people of the past to regard an adopted child equal to a blood related child and the adoptive parents would link the adopted child’s lineage with their own lineage. Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) had adopted Zaid bin Haritha as a son before prophethood. People called him Zaid, the son of Muhammad (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam). Allah Ta’ala reprimanding this act revealed the following verses:

مَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِنْ قَلْبَيْنِ فِي جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَاجَكُمُ اللَّائِي تُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَاءَكُمْ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَ ( ) ادْعُوهُمْ لِآَبَائِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا آَبَاءَهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَمَوَالِيكُمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَكِنْ مَا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا
Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his chest cavity, nor did he make your wives whom you subjected to Zihar, your mothers, nor did he make your adopted sons your (real) sons. That is (merely) a word uttered by your mouths. And Allah says the truth and He shows the (right) way. [33:5] Call them by (the name of) their (real) fathers; It is more equitable in the sight of Allah. And if you do not know their fathers, then they are your brothers in faith and your friends. There is no sin on you in the mistake you make, but in that which you do with intention of your heart; and Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful.

In the above verses, Muslims are commanded not to call an adopted child by his adoptive parents. Instead, he should be called by his real father’s name if the real father is known. If not, then he is your brother in deen, but he is not your son. (Ibn Kathir)

One can clearly see that the verse does not discuss the issue of changing surnames. It discusses the changing of a person’s lineage in which he is no longer attributed towards his real father but towards someone else.

As for the narration:
ابن عمر أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إن الغادر ينصب له لواء يوم القيامة فيقال هذه غدرة فلان بن فلان – البخارى
Ibn ‘Umar narrates Rasulullah (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Verily a betrayer will have a banner raised for himself on the Day of Judgment and it will be said this is for the betrayal of so and so son of so and so. (Al-Bukhari)

The abovementioned narration also does not provide any proof for the impermissibility of changing one’s surname. It merely states that a person will be called by his or her father’s name on the Day of Judgment. It does not state that a person will be called by his surname on the Day of Qiyamah. The questioner had erred in his reasoning for deducing impermissibly of changing surnames from the verse as well as the narration, as the two are concerning a person’s lineage and not regarding surnames.

When a woman accepts the surname of her husband, no one has the slightest thought that she is attributing her lineage to someone other than her father. In today’s time, the purpose of surnames is not to represent the lineage of a person. Surnames are for associating oneself to a particular clan or family. When a woman gets married, she comes into her husband’s family and is considered part of the family. It does not imply that she is now linked by lineage with her husband’s family.

In fact, one will find in the books of hadith that many narrators were known through there mother’s name and not fathers. We will mention a few names as a way of example.

- Zuhayr – a narrator of Sahih al-Bukhari. His name was Mansur ibn Safiyya. Safiyya was his mother and he was more known by this name. The father’s name was Abdur Rahman al-Hajabi. Safiyya was a Sahabiya for the lower level. (Fath al-Bari)

- Thabit al-Bunani – a narrator of Sunan Abi Dawud. Bunana was the mother of Sa’d and the progeny of Sa’d were known Bunana. (‘Awn al-Ma’bud)

- Bashir ibn al-Khasasiya – a narrator of Sunan Abi Dawud. His name father’s name was Ma’bad or Yazid, however he was more famously known as ibn Khasasiya, who was his mother. (‘Awn al-Ma’bud)

- Sahl ibn al-Hanzaliya – a narrator of Sunan Abi Dawud. Hanzaliya was the name of his mother and some say his grandmother. His father’s name was Rabi’. (‘Awn al-Ma’bud)

- Abu Bishr – a narrator of Sahih Bukhari. He name was Isma’il, but was more famously known as Ibn ‘Aliya, which was the name of his mother. (‘Umdat al-Qari)

Nevertheless, Shari’a does not make it compulsory upon a woman to change her surname nor does it deem it impermissible. She is at liberty to keep her maiden name or to adopt the husband’s surname.
And Allah knows best
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Difference of Opinion - A Rahmah?



'The differences among my Ulama is Rahmat (mercy).'

and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

I happen to refer your fatwa to unite Muslim brothers but I was requested to prove the authenticity of that hadith.

Someone told me that the hadith quoted is maudhu' based on explanation by Ibn Hazm.

Can you please explain the status and the authenticity of that hadith.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

The meaning of the hadith is correct and accepted by many Tabi’in and the scholars that followed after them. As for the hadith itself:

Imam Bayhaqi has narrated the hadith with the wording, “Whenever a certain ruling comes to you from the Book of Allah, then verily there is no excuse in not practicing upon it. If not from the Book of Allah, then it comes from my previous practices (sunnah). If not found in my practices, then what my companions have said. Verily my companions are like the stars in the sky. Which every one you choose and follow, you will be guided. The differences of companions for you are a mercy.” (Al-Madkhal ila al-Sunan al-Kubra li l-Bayhaqi)

أخبرنا أبو عبد الله الحافظ ، وأبو بكر أحمد بن الحسن ، قالا : ثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب ، ثنا بكر بن سهل الدمياطي ، ثنا عمرو بن هاشم البيروتي ، ثنا سليمان بن أبي كريمة ، عن جويبر ، عن الضحاك ، عن ابن عباس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مهما أوتيتم من كتاب الله فالعمل به ، لا عذر لأحد في تركه ، فإن لم يكن في كتاب الله ، فسنة مني ماضية ، فإن لم يكن سنتي ، فما قال أصحابي ، إن أصحابي بمنزلة النجوم في السماء فأيما أخذتم به اهتديتم ، واختلاف أصحابي لكم رحمة (المدخل إلى السنن الكبرى للبيهقي)

Tabrani and Daylami have also narrated this hadith in their musnad with the abovementioned wording. In the chain, the narrator Jawaybir is extremely weak and Dahhak has not heard from Ibn Abbas. (Al-Maqsid al-Hasana p 26)

ومن هذا الوجه أخرجه الطبراني والديلمي في مسنده بلفظه سواء، وجويبر ضعيف جداً، والضحاك عن ابن عباس منقطع (المقاصد الحسنة)

Zarkashi in his al-La’li al-Manthura fi al-Ahadith al-Mashhura writes that Nasr al-Din al-Maqdasi has narrated the hadith in his book Al-Hujjah reaching up to Nabi (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam), but Zarkashi did not provide a chain for it. (Al-Maqsid al-Hasana p 26)

وقد عزاه الزركشي إلى كتاب الحجة لنصر المقدسي مرفوعاً من غير بيان لسنده ولا صحابيه (المقاصد الحسنة)

Zaynudin al-Iraqi writes that Adam ibn Abi Iyas narrates without the exact wording “The difference between my companions is a mercy for my Ummah”, which Iraqi classifies as a weak mursal. (Al-Maqsid al-Hasana p 26)

وكذا عزاه العراقي لآدم بن أبي اسام في كتاب العلم والحكم بدون بيان بلفظ: اختلاف أصحابي رحمة لأمتي، قال: وهو مرسل ضعيف (المقاصد الحسنة)

Imam Bayhaqi also narrates with the similar wording in his Risala al-Ash’ariya, but without a chain. (Al-Maqsid al-Hasana p 26)

وبهذا اللفظ ذكره البيهقي في رسالته الأشعرية بغير اسناد (المقاصد الحسنة)

Despite the above, the mere fact that this statement was so commonly quoted by several Muhaditheen and Fuqaha shows how widely accepted it was. This is why Imam Suyuti after quoting the hadith, “The differences of my nation are a mercy” states, “The hadith has been narrated by Nasr al-Din al-Maqdasi and Bayhaqi without a chain. It has also been narrated by al-Haleemi, Qadi Husayn, Imam al-Haramayn, and others. It is possible that the narrators were mentioned in the previous work of hadith, but have not reached us.” (Al-Jami’ al-Shaghir 1/71)

اختلاف أمتي رحمة ( نصر المقدسي في الحجة البيهقي في الرسالة الأشعرية ) بغير سند وأورده الحليمي والقاضي حسين وإمام الحرمين وغيرهم ولعله خرج في بعض كتب الحفاظ التي لم تصل إلينا (الجامع الصغير للسيوطى)

Imam Sakhawi in Al-Maqasid al-Hasana writes, “I have read from the pen of my teacher (Ibn Hajr) that the hadith is famous amongst people.” Sakhawi further writes, “Ibn Hajib mentions it in his Al-Mukhtasar in the chapter of analogy with the wording ‘Differences between my nations is a blessing for the people.’ Many questions have been raised regarding the status of the hadith and some scholars thought it has no bases. However, Khattabi in his Gharib al-Hadith has written that only two people have raised objections to this hadith. One was shameless and the other was deviated; Ishaq al-Musali and Amr ibn Bakr al-Jahiz. They both claimed that if differences were to be a mercy, then it would mean agreements are a curse. Thereafter, Khattabi goes about refuting this argument.” (Al-Maqasid al-Hasana p.26)

وقد قرأت بخط شيخنا: إنه يعني هذا الحديث حديث مشهور على الألسنة، وقد أورده ابن الحاجب في المختصر في مباحث القياس بلفظ: اختلاف أمتي رحمة للناس، وكثر السؤال عنه، وزعم كثير من الأئمة أنه لا أصل له، لكن ذكره الخطابي في غريب الحديث مستطرداً، وقال اعترض على هذا الحديث رجلان، أحدهما ماجن والآخر ملحد، وهما اسحاق الموصلي وعمرو بن بحر الجاحظ، وقالا جميعاً: لو كان الاختلاف رحمة لكان الاتفاق عذاباً، ثم تشاغل الخطابي برد هذا الكلام (المقاصد الحسنة)

Nevertheless, the meaning of this statement is absolutely correct, as mentioned by the Tabi’in and Fuqaha.

1. Khatib al-Baghdadi in his book Ruwat An Malik narrates from Isma’il ibn Abi Mujalid that Harun Rashid said to Malik, “O Abu ‘Abdullah, we will make copies of these books (the books of Malik) and spread them in the Islamic empire so that we can make Ummah practice upon it.” Imam Malik replied, “O lead of the faithfuls, differences of the ‘Ulama is a blessing which Allah has bestowed this Ummah. Each [scholar] follows that which is correct according to him, each one is on guidance, and each one desires [the pleasure of] Allah. (Kash al-Khifa wa Muzil al-Ilbas 1/56)

فقد أخرج الخطيب في رواة مالك عن إسماعيل بن أبي المجالد قال : قال هارون الرشيد لمالك بن أنس : يا أبا عبد الله تكتب هذه الكتب يعني مؤلفات الإمام مالك وتفرقها في أفاق الإسلام لتحمل عليها الأمة قال : يا أمير المؤمنين إن اختلاف العلماء رحمة من الله تعالى على هذه الأمة كل يتبع ما يصح عنده وكل على هدى وكل يريد الله تعالى (كشف الخفاء ومزيل الإلباس)

2. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Qasim narrates from his father that he said, “I very much like the saying of Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz “I would not like if they companions of the Prophet did not disagree, because if there was only one view in a matter, then the people would have been in hardiness. They (the companions) were leaders whom people followed. If a person takes their view, he would have the liberty to do so. (Jami Bayan al-‘Ilm wa Fadlihi)

وذكر ابن وهب ، عن نافع بن أبي نعيم ، عن عبد الرحمن بن القاسم ، عن أبيه ، أنه قال : لقد أعجبني قول عمر بن عبد العزيز رضي الله عنه ما أحب أن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يختلفوا ؛ لأنه لو كان قولا واحدا كان الناس في ضيق وإنهم أئمة يقتدى بهم ولو أخذ رجل بقول أحدهم كان في سعة (جامع بيان العلم وفضله للابن عبد البر)

3. Imam Bayhaqi in his Al-Madkhal narrates up to Qasim ibn Muhammad with the words: “The differences of the companions of Muhammad (Sallalahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam) are a mercy for the bondsmen of Allah.” (Al-Maqsid al-Hasana p 26)

وفي المدخل له من حديث سفيان عن أفلح بن حميد عن القاسم بن محمد قال: اختلاف أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم رحمة لعباد الله (المقاصد الحسنة)

Ibn Sa’d in Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra has narrated it with the wording “The differences of the companion of Rasulullah (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) is a mercy for people.” (Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra 5/189)

حدثنا أفلح بن حميد عن القاسم بن محمد قال كان اختلاف أصحاب رسول الله رحمة للناس (الطبقات الكبرى لابن سعد)

4. Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali writes in ‘Luma’ al-‘Itiqad’’, “Attributing an issue towards a particular Imam in subsidiary matters of religion, such as the four schools of Fiqh, it is not reprehensible. Verily differences in subsidiary matters is a mercy and those having the differed opinion are worthy of praise and rightful of reward for their ijtihad. Their differences are a blessing and their agreements are a strong proof.” (Shaykh Abd al-Fattah ala Hamish Risala al-Ulfa Bayn al-Muslimeen p.17)

هو الإمام ابن قدامة المقدسى الحنبلى رحمه الله تعالى. قال ذلك فى آخر وختام رسالته اللطيفة: ((لمعة الإعتقاد)) : (( وأما النسبة إلى إمام فى فروع الدين كالطوائف – أى المذاهب – الأربع فليس بمذموم ، فإن الإختلاف فى الفروع رحمة ، والمختلفون فيه محمود فى إختلافهم ، مثابون فى اجتهادهم ، وإختلافهم رحمة واسعة واتفاقهم حخة قاطعة)) – (على هامش رسالة الألفة بين المسلمين لابن تيمية الحرانى الدمشقى)

5. Imam Darimi in the muqadima to his Sunan narrates that ‘Awn ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Utbah ibn Mas’ud said, “I would not please me if the companions of the Prophet (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) did not disagree. If they all were to agree on something and someone [coming later] did not practice upon it, then he would not be practicing upon the sunna. If the companions disagreed and a person accepts one of their views, he would still be practice upon sunna.” (Adab al-Ikhtilaf p. 34)

ومن أقران القاسم بن محمد هذا: العالم الثقة العابد الخليل عون بن عبد الله بن عتبة بن مسعود رضى الله عنه ، فقد روى عنه الدارمى فى مقدمة ((سننه)) تحت باب : إختلاف الفقهاء ، أنه قال: ((ما أحب أن أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يختلفوا ، فإنهم لو اجتمعوا على شئ فتركه رجل ترك السنة ، ولو اختلفوا فأخذ رجل بقول أحد ، أخذ باسنة)) – (أدب الإختلاف)

6. Ibn Taymiyya in his Majmu’ al-Fatwa writes, “A person once wrote a book on differences. Imam Ahmed said to him, “Do not name it ‘Kitab al-Ikhtilaf’ (Book of Differences), but name it ‘Kitab al-Sunna’ (Book of Sunna).” (Majma’ al-Fatawa 14/95)

For a more detailed discussion on difference being a mercy, we recommend the reading of Adab al-Ikhtilaf by Shaykh Muhammad Awwama. The Shaykh has elaborated the discussion in much detail in which he has also refuted the view of Ibn Hazm. (See pg. 117-126 & 32-36)

- المقاصد الحسنة للشخاوى– مكتبة الخانجى القاهرة
- اللالئ المنثورة فى الأحاديث المشهورة للزركشى – المكتب الإسلامى
- إتقان ما يحسن من الأخبار الدائرة على الألسن لنجم الدين محمد بن محمد الغزى الدمشقى – القاروق الحديثة
- الدرر المنثورة فى الأحاديث المشتهرة للسيوطى – مكتبة الوراق
- كشف الخفاء ومزيل الإلباس عما إشتهر من الأحاديث على ألسنة الناس لإسماعيل بن محمد الهادى الجراحى العجلوعى الشافعى- عباس أحمد الباز
- الجامع الصغير من حديث البشير والنظير للسيوطى – مكتبة نزار مصطفى الباز
- الشذرة فى الأحاديث المشتهرة لمحمد طولون الصالحى – دار الكتب العلمية
- الطبقات الكبرى لابن سعد – دار صادر بيروت
- أدب الإختلاف فى مسائل العلم والدين لمحمد عوامة – دار البشائر الإسلامية
- رسالة الألفة بين المسلمين لابن تيمية الحرانى الدمشقى – مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية بحلب
- جامع بيان العلم وفضله للابن عبد البر – مكتبة الشاملة
And Allah knows best
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

A Beautiful Hadith - Validity?


Recently I received the following mail. Would like to know the authenticity with reference(s).

A Beautiful Hadith

Rasoolullaah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: 'When a man dies and his relatives are busy in funeral, there stands an extremely handsome man by his head. When the dead body is shrouded, that man gets in between the shroud and the chest of the deceased.

When after the burial, the people return home, 2 angels, Munkar and Nakeer(names of two special Angels), come in the grave and try to separate this handsome man so that they may be able to interrogate the dead man in privacy about his faith. But the handsome man says, 'He is my companion, he is my friend. I will not leave him alone in any case. If you are appointed for interrogation, do your job. I cannot leave him until I get him admitted into Paradise '.

Thereafter he turns to his dead companion and says, 'I am the Qura'an, which you used to read, sometimes in a loud voice and sometimes in a low voice. Do not worry. After the interrogation of Munkar and Naker, you will have no grief.

When the interrogation is over, the handsome man arranges for him from Al-Mala'ul A'laa (the angels in Heaven) a silk bedding filled with musk.

Rasulullah (Sallalloho alaihe Wa-aalay wasallam) said: 'On the Day of Judgement, before Allah, no other intercessor will have a greater status than the Qura'an, neither a Prophet nor an angel.'

Please keep forwarding this 'Hadith' to all ...because Rasoolullaah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

'Pass on knowledge from me even if it is only one verse'.

May Allah bestow this favour on all of us? AMEEN AMEEN


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Your query contains three Ahadith. Hereunder are the verifications of there authenticity and there references.

1. “When a man dies and his relatives are busy……..”

The above Hadith is portion of an extremely long Hadith that is recorded with two chains of narrators.
The first chain of narrators lead up to Ubadah Bin Saamit (radiyallaahu anhu). This Hadith is recorded in Tanzihu Al-Shari’a, Al-la aali al-Masnoo’ah, Al-Du’afaa (Uqaili) and other books of Hadith as well. However, the Muhaditheen have questioned the authenticity of this Hadith.

The second chain of narrators lead up to Mu’az Bin Jabal (radiyallaahu anhu). This Hadith is recorded in Al-Bazaar, Al-Targheeb and other books as well. There has being discussion amongst the Muhadditheen regarding the authenticity of this Hadith, however no one has classified it as “fabricated”.

2. “On the day of judgment, before Allah……”

The above Hadith is recorded in Ihyaa, Maqasid Al-Hasanah and other books of Hadith as well. We could not find a ruling of any Muhadith on this Hadith. Furthermore, this Hadith is recorded without a sanad (chain of narrators) which makes it difficult to comment on its authenticity. All we could find was that Hafidh Iraqi mentioned that this hadith was narrated by Abdul Malik Bin Habib from Sa’eed Bin Sulaim, Mursalan.

3. Pass on knowledge from me………..
The above Hadith is authentic and is recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari. (#3461)

And Allah knows best
Ml. Talha Desai,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Massah over the nape

I'm aware that in the Hanafi Madhab (as well as that it is the view of the Hanbalis and some from some Shafites) it is Mustahab to wipe the nape in Wudhu.
Im also aware about the narrations on this topic, and also that it is mentioned in the Fiqhi books.
However i want to ask wheter this masalah is mentioned in the Zahir-ur Riwaya books or other than those; mentioning it specifically as a verdict of Imaam Abu Hanifa or his students Imaam Muhammad and Imaam Abu Yusuf.
Please mention those books with the relevant quotes.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

Before answering the question, it is pertinent to understand the methodology of the Hanafi School of Fiqh. The Hanafi School does not constitute only of the views of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra), Imam Abu Yusuf (ra), and Imam Muhammad (ra), but rather it also constitutes of the views of many Jurists coming after the three Imams who solidified the madhhab. It is for this reason that there are many different levels of Jurists within the Hanafi School. From the different levels, some Jurists are those who extracted new rulings from the original sources which were not mentioned by the three Imams. They extracted these new rulings based on the laws and rulings of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra). Therefore, even if a certain issue is not addressed by any of the three Imams it does not imply that it is not part of the madhhab.

As for your question, we could not locate a direct narration from one of the three Imams pertaining to masah over the nape. However, many latter Jurists have addressed this issue in their books.

1. Shaykh Burhan al-Din (ra) in his Al-Muheet writes, “Imam Muhammad (ra) did not mention in his Al-Kitab regarding masah of the nape. Abu Jafar (ra) used to say that masah of the nape is sunna and many Jurists accepted this view. (Muheet al-Burhani 1/177 Idarat al-Quran)

لم يذكر محمد رحمه الله في «الكتاب» مسح الرقبة، وكان الفقيه أبو جعفر رحمه الله يقول: إنه سنّة وبه أخذ أكثر العلماء

2. Mahmud al-Mahbubi (ra), the author of Al-Wiqaya states, “The mustahab acts [of wudu] are to start from the right side and to make masah of the nape. His grandson ‘Ubaydullah al-Mahbubi (ra) in the commentary of this book states the reason, “Because Nabi (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) made masah of the nape. (Sharah al-Wiqaya 1/65 Yasir Nadim And Company)

ومستحبه التيامن...ومسح الرقبة لأن النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم مسح عليها

3. Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Halabi (ra), the author of Multaqa al-Abhur states, “The mustahab acts [of wudu] are to start from the right side and to make masah of the nape.” (Majma al-Anhur Sharah Multaqa al-Abhur)

ومستحبه...التيامن...ومسح الرقبة

4. Shams al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Sarakhsi (ra), the author Al-Mabsoot, writes, “Imam Muhammad (ra) did not mention the issue of making masah on the nape. Some Jurists have said it is not from the actions of wudu. However, the correct view is that it is preferable to do masah of the nape in wudu. Ibn ‘Umar (Radiyallahu 'Anhu) has said, make masah of your napes before the fire of hell becomes an iron collar around it.” (Mabsoot li al-Sarakhsi)

ولم يذكر فيه مسح الرقبة وبعض مشايخنا يقول إنه ليس من أعمال الوضوء والأصح أنه مستحسن في الوضوء . قال " ابن عمر " رضي الله عنهما : امسحوا رقابكم قبل أن تغل بالنار

5. Kamal al-Din ibn Humam (ra), the author of Fath al-Qadir writes, “Masah of the nape is mustahab with the outer portion of the hand since its wetness has not been used. And masah of the throat is an innovation.” (Fath al-Qadir)

ومسح الرقبة مستحب بظهر اليدين لعدم استعمال بلتهما ، والحلقوم بدعة .

The abovementioned texts where brought as a way of example. The issue of making masah on the nape has been addressed by almost every latter Jurist. Therefore, there is no reason to doubt whether masah on the nape is part of the Hanafi School.
And Allah knows best


Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah